In two weeks, I’ll be leaving the U.S. for seven weeks of travel to Italy, Israel, and Jordan, with airport stopovers in Frankfurt and Munich, Germany. This long trip will conclude the busiest year of my life in international travel (I was in Pakistan and Italy early this year, and spent long hours in airport terminals in Dubai, Abu Dabi, Frankfurt, and London.) With air travel as it is today—whether you’re flying overseas or domestically—things can be unpredictable. On a recent round of travel, I was delayed in terminals by two airplanes with mechanical problems—on the ground, fortunately! Maybe that’s why none of the other friars want to fly with me!
As I prepare to depart for this trip, I recall a comparison the late Franciscan pilgrim guide Friar Roch Niemier OFM made between a pilgrim and a nomad. He used the two terms as metaphors for living as a Christian, at the of a pilgrimage in Italy 15 years ago,
A pilgrim, Friar Roch said, is someone who “goes to places that are holy [where] sacred characters [like Jesus or Saint Francis] stopped there in the past.” A pilgrim usually has a guide, who cares for the needs of the pilgrims, gets them safely to and from the holy places, and helps them get in touch with the stories of the holy men and women who were there.
In the next seven weeks, I will be such a guide for two groups—high school students from the US, and adults journeying to the Holy Land. Together, we will visit holy places in Rome, Assisi, and the Holy Land. These pilgrims will be in my care. I will try my best to tell the stories and lead them in prayer. As always, I trust that God will be at work in all of us as we travel together.
But being an actual pilgrim in the Holy Land or to other shrines may be a privilege something one has the chance to do once or twice in life. The rest of the time, Roch suggested, we are nomads. He described a nomad as one “who goes to unknown places for holiness, places that yet need to be made holy in the present or the future. The nomad has no guide, other than God.”
Roch concluded his reflection to us (who were pilgrims at that moment) with the injunction: “Be nomads! There’s so much work to be done to have the Kingdom of God come about….So much to be done!”
I am conscious that over the next seven weeks I will be a pilgrim guide, and I’ll also be something of a nomad before and after my pilgrimages. I have a couple of weeks off to visit in Italy, seeing friars, and my family there, as well as working in Jerusalem, researching stories for our magazine, The Holy Land Review. As a “nomad,” I’m certain that I will meet people along the way who will reveal the Kingdom to me, if I am attentive. Perhaps I will do the same for them.
I said above that being a pilgrim to those special sacred places is a rare privilege. But truly, our lives are made up of many small “pilgrimages” to the places sacred to us in our lives—our homes, our parishes, the circle of our families; there, we tell our own “sacred stories” and God speaks to us through them.
The rest of the time, we are “nomads” in the sense that Roch described. We’re “on our own” in the world, traveling to places which are not yet holy, where we can help the Kingdom of God to take root and flourish. It might be your college campus, work place—or even an airport terminal!
If you are a regular reader of the #FriarFriday posts, you know that there is a quartet of friars who take turns writing these short articles about Franciscan life. What you may not know is that three of these friar-authors—Jim, Michael, and Tom—all are on the move this summer to new assignments. It’s part of Franciscan life. Periodically, each of us pulls up our roots in a place and travels to a different region (or perhaps a different friary within a city) and takes up a new job.
This mobility is central to Franciscan life. People often ask us if we are monks. Our answer is, no, we’re not monks. We are friars, a word which simply means brothers. But there is more to the distinction between a monk and a friar. In the 13th century, a new form of religious life for men began to appear, with the founding of the mendicant orders. Of these, the Franciscans and the Dominicans are perhaps the best known. (I’ll define that term in a moment!)
Previously, religious orders of men were gathered into the monastic orders—the most important of these was the Benedictine Order. The members were monks, living in a monastery, to which they took a vow of stability. This vow meant that a monk remained attached to a particular monastery for life. He lived his life in a self-contained way there. (Occasionally a monk could be sent to make a new foundation, a new monastery; or be sent on a special assignment by his abbot-superior or the Pope; some monks might venture outside the monastery to do some service, but in general, monks stayed put!)
When St. Francis gathered men about him to live the Gospel life, he wrote a simple way of life. His brothers were to live poorly, without possessions. They lived in huts made by their own hands or slept under the stars. They worked or begged for their food. The Latin word mendicare, “to beg,” gave rise to the word mendicants to describe these itinerant religious. They went where God led them, to work, give witness, and sometimes preach (if permitted by the Church).
The itinerant quality of Franciscan life has survived since the 13th century. It’s true that the Order took on monastic qualities at various points in its history—with large friaries, which even here in the U.S. were called “monasteries” (like the place I live in Washington, DC, the “Franciscan Monastery of the Holy Land in America”).But that description was not really accurate. Monks live in
But that description was not really accurate. Monks live in monasteries and are bound to a particular one. Friars live in “friaries” and can be transferred from place to place. By virtue of our vow of obedience, we are sometimes asked by our ministers—the friars who direct the life of the community—to take on a new assignment. These days, such a request is usually accompanied by dialogue. A friar can also ask for a change, for various reasons.Friars commit themselves to be open to reasonable requests, made for the good the Order or the Church. No friar can be commanded against his conscience or the Rule of the Order. But in most cases “obedience” needn’t be invoked. That vow means we remain open to what the Order and the Church needs.
Friars commit themselves to be open to reasonable requests, made for the good the Order or the Church. No friar can be commanded against his conscience or the Rule of the Order. But in most cases, obedience needn’t be invoked. That vow means we remain open to what the Order and the Church needs.
An active spiritual life includes prayer and ongoing discernment. “Where is God calling me at this time in life?” We dialogue regularly with our leadership and share the answer to that question! Honest prayer and self-evaluation must include the possibility of a request by the community for a change in ministry or residence.
Once in a while, someone will tell a friar—“Well, how can you really get involved in a ministry when you might be changed some day? Can you really care about the people here, if you know you will be moved in the future?”
I think I can speak for most friars I know: We don’t think that way! When God calls—through the discernment process and God’s will expressed through our leadership—we try to embrace the assignment totally. Our mobility doesn’t influence our commitment here and now. Personally, I have a spiritual connection to every place I’ve worked and to the Church communities with whom I’ve ministered. I learned from the People of God in each place I’ve lived and worked as a friar. I carry the memories on the road with me.
It’s likely that you’ll be hearing from Friars Jim, Michael and Tom about their new assignments and ministries in future columns. I’m staying put at the moment, having received an “obedience letter” recently from my provincial minister renewing my current ministry to the Franciscan mission on behalf of the Holy Land. But as a friar, “the world is my cloister,” and I am at home wherever the Gospel is to be preached. So someday, I, too may be “on the move.” That’s the mission and life of a mendicant!
Life at the Franciscan Monastery of the Holy Land in America, here in the nation’s capital, Washington, D.C., is never dull. A constant stream of visitors come for prayer, tours, or just to enjoy our beautiful gardens. But in the past week, we hosted two groups, from two different faith-traditions, who were a departure from the usual.
On Friday, July 8, the Utah Valley Children’s Choir—some 150-strong, along with chaperones—made the Monastery a stop on their cross-country tour. For most of these Mormon young people, and the adults with them, this was probably a first look at a Catholic shrine.
Friar Jim Gardiner, SA, a fellow Franciscan on our staff, arranged for the visit, and the group was able to use our inner courtyard for dinner and a reception following the concert. The musical program itself, which took place in the church, featured both religious and patriotic music.
One of the reasons the choir made the Monastery a destination was that their organist, Don Cook, is a member of the American Guild of Organists (AGO), and had taken part in a musical program here. (The local Washington, DC, chapter of the AGO has—for the past several years—partnered with us in an annual series of Sunday “Music at the Monastery” concerts.) His contact with Friar Jim led to last Friday’s event.
As in any ecumenical exchange, there is learning on both sides. Some of the musical program and narration was drawn from the Mormons’ history—perhaps a bit of a stretch for some of the Catholics who came to hear the music. But the young singers and their leaders also got to ask us questions about what we are about here—how the friars live, our mission, and what one finds in a Catholic church.
One conversation stands out for me. A woman who directed a small group of singers told me of her appreciation for the work of Franciscan Friar Richard Rohr. “I’ve introduced a lot of Mormons to him,” she admitted, noting that Richard’s teachings on faith and contemplation move beyond a strictly Catholic audience. She also had high praise for Pope Francis and his pastoral leadership.
Finding common ground is what a place like the Monastery of the Holy Land is all about. On Wednesday, July 12, we hosted a group of nearly 40 young Buddhist day-campers from the U.S. Zen Institute in nearby Maryland. The monk, Ven. Sagarananda Tien, who organized the visit—again a long-time friend of Father Jim—wanted to show his group what he had discovered in a previous visit: the beauty and peacefulness of the shrine church and gardens.
After lunch in our dining room, Friar Jim and I presented a short program on St. Francis and the Holy Land. We were able to find points of common belief with the Buddhist and Franciscan traditions. The group toured the church, and got to ask about the Catholic symbolism, the replicas of the shrines found in Jerusalem, and the parade of saints depicted above altars and in the window. Then we took the young people to our farm, where the director of our Garden Guild explained our efforts to care for creation by raising pesticide-free vegetables for the needs of the community and neighborhood, and our beekeeping project. Each youngster received a plant to take home.
The Franciscan mission is about sharing the Gospel as Francis experienced it. He lived and preached a message of inclusion, of welcome, of universal kinship with all of creation, and especially with all people. I’d like to think that’s what our Monastery here in Washington can be for visitors who seek peace and a space with God—however they understand God.
That’s what we’ll be about on Saturday, July 15, when we will add Muslim guests, vendors and a group of traditional dancers, to the list of visitors in the past week or so! We will celebrate of our annual Holy Land Festival, where we showcase the culture, food, crafts and real-life issues facing those who live in that land. There, Jews, Muslims and Christians today dream the same dream which we Franciscans offer here—peace and harmony with the God whom we celebrate in common.
In his Rule of Life, approved by the pope in 1223, St. Francis of Assisi instructs those who are “ministers and custodians” of the friars “to assemble in whatever place the general minister may have designated. Let them do this once in every three years, or at other longer and shorter intervals.” (The Later Rule, Chapter VIII).
These meetings, or “chapters,” of the friars have been a part of Franciscan life since the very beginning. In the normal course of the life of the International Order, and of a local province or custody (a smaller regional group), the chapter meets every three years. Each group determines whether delegates or all the friars (depending on the group’s size and local custom), will make up the chapter membership.
The most important business of a chapter is to elect new leadership—a “provincial” or “custodial” minister, a “vicar” (second-in-charge), and “councilors” to serve as advisers. But the chapter also addresses “big issues” facing the community on each level. How best to live together? How to carry on the Gospel mission? What structures can best govern the fraternity? The chapter is also a time for friars to be together in fraternity, enjoying one another’s company in prayer and socializing.
All of this explanation is by way of setting up what was, for me, a most unusual experience: How did I come to take part in three chapters?
For my own Province of St. John the Baptist, in the U.S., it was an election year. Our provincial minister had completed nine years of service in that job, and was ready to hand over his responsibilities to another brother! Our friars were to meet in chapter at St. Meinrad Archabbey, in southern Indiana, in May. But by the time May rolled around, I had already participated in another chapter—on the other side of the world!
Last summer, I was chosen by our general minister in Rome, Friar Michael Perry OFM, to serve as a “general visitor” to the friars of the Custody of St. John the Baptist, in Pakistan. It is the custom among us to have an outsider—a friar of another region and group—to conduct a fraternal “visitation” when there is an election of the main leader—the “minister of the province (or custody). Before this, each friar there gets a chance to meet individually and share with the “visitor” about his life and ministry. The general visitor also learns how the friars in that part of the world carry out their mission and live Franciscan life. Each friar is free to voice personal needs, and—if need be—complaints, in a “safe setting.”
When the chapter meets, the visitor presides and oversees the elections. This practice ensures objectivity and fairness in elections. But more importantly, it connects the friars with the larger Franciscan Order. The visitor’s report to the chapter offers suggestions for change and growth, as well as affirmation, to the friars.
My job as “general visitor” took place in two parts: the month of January and two weeks in April. My task was relatively easy: the friars in Pakistan are a small group—32 friars in solemn vows, and 17 student friars in formation. In April, we celebrated the chapter—a week filled with prayer, discussions, sharing of meals and much fraternity—all in the 100-degree heat of Karachi, Pakistan!
The friars spoke of how they must live Franciscan life as part of a minority religion in a Muslim society. Their faith and that of the people they serve was a great witness to me. It was a privilege meet them and to share their lives.
After my return to the U.S. in April, I traveled to Indiana for my own provincial chapter at St. Meinrad’s. It was good to see many of my brothers. Our chapter was larger: We had 95 friars attending. Our “general visitor,” who came from Ireland, gave a report and conducted elections, as I had in Pakistan. We also had some big issues to discuss—our future life here in the U.S., and important social justice issues which we will seek to promote in the coming three.
When our chapter ended, I had but one night’s rest before flying to New Mexico to take part in my third chapter of the year! This time, I had been “hired” to serve as recording secretary for the Province of Our Lady of Guadalupe, whose friars work primarily in New Mexico and Arizona.
Much was similar, with elections and deliberations—but the issues were unique to friars who minister with Native Americans and Spanish-speaking Catholics. The setting, too, was different. It took place in the beautiful “land of enchantment” near towering mountains and wide deserts and big sky.
Back home now, I am glad the “year of three chapters” is over for me! But it has been a great grace. I had the rare privilege of taking part in three gatherings which showed me how Franciscans are the same, no matter where we meet. We love to celebrate our Gospel lives, share stories, pray wholeheartedly for God’s guidance, and face the future with hope. Our languages may vary; our issues differ; but we hearken back to the same Rule in which St. Francis wrote: “Wherever the brothers may be and meet one another, let them show that they are members of the same family” (The Later Rule, Chapter VI).
Have you ever been visited by representatives of a particular religion or Church, going door to door to evangelize? While most of us probably have answered the doorbell to such evangelizers, I suspect the reverse is not true. Rarely do Catholics engage in such face-to-face faith-sharing. I know I’m very shy about approaching a total stranger with a request to consider learning about Jesus—and I’m “in the business,” so to speak!
This Sunday at Mass, we’ll hear Scripture selections chosen to be part of the Church’s ongoing “course of Easter instructions” for the newly baptized. But they apply to all of us. The first reading, from the Acts of the Apostles, stresses Christian witness—one that turned out to have very positive results. The First Letter of Peter sets out a program for evangelizing, urging Christians to approach others, ready to explain who we are, but to do so with “gentleness and reverence.”
That admonition echoes the advice St. Francis of Assisi gave his brothers who were thinking of being missionaries. He told them to “avoid quarrels or disputes and to be subject to every human creature for God’s sake.” Francis was quoting from the First Letter of Peter. Today’s passage—after urging “gentleness and reverence”—goes on to encourage those fearful of persecution to remember that Christ also suffered persecution.
Francis wrote his missionary advice, in what we friars know today as his first attempt to draft a formal Rule of Life. While it was not approved by the Pope, it remains significant for us. His approved Rule contains a shorter description, yet the same spirit. Both texts reflect Francis’ experience in visiting the Sultan in Damietta, Egypt, at the time of the Crusades in 1219.
On a recent assignment to the friars in Pakistan, I was impressed by the witness of my fellow Franciscans and the Christians whom they serve in that majority Muslim country. Their presence is respected under the law, but Christians have on occasions been harassed and even killed. But I found that the friars minister with the attitude Francis urges. They see God is at work in the faith of devout Muslims—something Francis also experienced in his visit with the Sultan in Egypt. Like Francis, the friars in Pakistan are open to dialogue with Muslim leaders and neighbors.
Interestingly, Islam means “submission”—the very attitude Francis urged upon the brothers! Devout Muslims are subject in everything to God’s will. We can learn a lot from that response to God. Surely, Francis found in them an echo of his own total gift to God, which would later be confirmed in the vision of the seraph and the imprint of the stigmata.
Each of us has a duty to witness his or her Catholic faith. Probably, we won’t do it in any confrontational or flashy way. It’s just not our “catholic” style! More to our taste is the Franciscan way—humbly, gently, reverently relating to people of other faiths, persuasions, and opinions. We need, of course, to be ready to own up to who we are, to honest about that. But beginning with respect, searching—as Francis did—for how the actions of the other may be pleasing to God, we silently present the Gospel life of Jesus to others.
How that works out for each of us, is the work of the Holy Spirit. We can trust that Spirit because Jesus himself assures us in this Sunday’s Gospel that we will not be alone in our witnessing; the Holy Spirit will be present with us, to support and guide us. The Spirit is, as the late Bishop Ken Untener of Saginaw told me once, “by our side and on our side.” The Spirit will guide you, as the Spirit once guided Francis in the camp of the Sultan—and your witness to Christ will surely bear fruit in peace, gentleness, and reverence.